Everything You Need To Know About JS Business Implementation In 2020
Imagine that your department is releasing a brand new product, and you need an upscale website to build some buzz around the launch. Or picture that you are planning to start a scalable online B2B marketplace.
And what if you want to build an ingenious digital product, for instance, a browser-based game platform or a smartwatch app? How about a mobile application to boost your market presence, improve customer service, or make your team more productive?
Yup, you can build them in JS, too.
* if that’s still an issue, they can read this section.
You might be a startup owner who wants to mesmerize a room full of investors with an irresistible, interactive business pitch.
Or a product owner who needs to build a website or web app to promote and sell a product.
Or a project manager looking to develop an internal platform to coordinate the work of your teams.
Our guide will also be relevant to entrepreneurs seeking improved enterprise application performance, enhanced cross-functional team productivity, and business process automation.
Plenty (we hope). But if you ask us to name the five most significant gains, these would be:
Which amazing things you can build with JS, and which ones you cannot.
What the heck are JS frameworks and why you need them in your life.
How much you can expect to pay for your project and what factors to consider when scoping the budget.
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Table of Contents
Born in 1961, Brendan Eich is an American technologist, software engineer, and keynote speaker. After joining Netscape Communications in 1995, Eich created a language to support the browser. It was designed based on Java’s syntax and standard library, and with object names that corresponded to Java classes.
In 1998, Eich co-founded the Mozilla project, ultimately leading to the creation of the Mozilla Foundation, which later became Mozilla Corporation. After leaving Mozilla, Eich set up another company, Brave Software, developing a privacy-oriented browser combined with a blockchain-based digital advertising platform.
Open source applies to software, and JS is a programming language, so no, JS is not open source. However, it’s an open standard that conforms to ECMAScript specification. Anyone can use it to develop their own implementations.
For JS to produce any output, we need interpreter engines, each of which is subject to its own license agreement. For example, Google’s V8, Facebook’s Hermes, or Mozilla’s Rhino, they are all open source. By contrast, Jerryscript is licensed under the Apache License.
Sometimes, e.g., in the case of React, it’s hard to categorically determine whether a given resource is a framework or a library. Nevertheless, in theory, the two notions are distinct.
A framework is a software platform that lays the groundwork for programmers to develop applications. You can compare it to a house plan or blueprint that needs to be populated with input before the construction begins.
Same with a software framework; it is pre-equipped with code for predefined classes, workflows, and functions, but needs specific details to be supplied by the programmer before it can run a complete code.
Popular JS frameworks include Angular, Bootstrap, and Vue.js.
Jump to this section to learn more about JS frameworks.
A library, like a framework, refers to a reusable piece of code; however, libraries are usually focused on delivering a specific functionality/component, and give developers greater freedom over the code structure than frameworks. Coming back to the house metaphor: libraries can be compared to ready-made pieces of furniture or appliances that we choose to make our home complete.
The main difference between a library and a framework is that a library contains snippets of ready-made code that needs to be still arranged by the developer into a workflow. Frameworks, on the other hand, are in charge of running workflows. Additionally, one framework can utilize multiple libraries.
There are dozens of JS libraries available, with DOJO, jQuery, and React topping popularity charts.
In the client-side context, scripts execute directly in the browser, which results in faster processing and immediate response to the user’s requests. Because of the speed and more lightweight script processing on the client side, this model is preferred to implement dynamic, interactive web content and handle user interactions.
An extended version of JS allows it to be run on the server side, with backend access to files, databases, and servers. In this context, JS code is created similarly to C, Java, or any other server-side language.
Currently, JS is the only commonly-recognized client-side language for browsers apart from WebAssembly, which is rather to be seen as a complementary technology. Alternative solutions like Java applets, Silverlight, or ActiveX, have all been discontinued by now.
|Developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems and released in 1995.||Developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape and released in 1995.|
|It is a general-purpose programming language based on C-style syntax.||It is a web-based scripting language, also closely-related to C-style syntax.|
|Java requires code compilation to check data types.||JS can run without compilers as data types are checked dynamically.|
|Java is a class-based language.||JS is prototype-based.|
|As a general-purpose language, Java can be used to develop applications of any type. However, it has some preferred applications.||JS is mainly used to build web applications, and its primary purpose is to create dynamic, interactive pages, web and mobile apps, and fully-featured GUIs, but it's not restricted to that use only.|
For more details jump to the next chapter
If we said that everyone uses JS on their website, this wouldn’t be much of an overstatement. JS powers over 90% of all global sites, including those of Microsoft, Facebook, Walmart, Uber, PayPal, Google, Quora, and LinkedIn alongside millions of others.
Besides, JS is well-suited for web and mobile app development as it heavily focuses on UX/UI and design enhancement. This results in distinctive, highly-accessible interfaces. Another useful JS advantage is the fact that it supports multi-platform development, making devs capable of using the same code to deploy your apps to multiple platforms and OSs.
By adding depth to websites and apps, 3D design elements create a greater sense of realism and boost user engagement with your product. However, to deliver the desired outcome, 3D features need to be skillfully implemented.
You may get a sample of Three.js mind-blowing 3D capabilities on the corporate FACC site
Or take a virtual tour of Google’s Cloud City
Furthermore, Node.js is highly extensible, giving your developers the freedom to customize and extend the code with ease as requested. All of these characteristics, paired with the full-stack capabilities of the environment, make it a suitable choice for web server creation.
A retro-inspired 2D RPG, CrossCode is an example of a game entirely based on JS
Because of the availability of rich sets of up-to-date data, the web browser environment is ideal for deep learning deployments. JS, with its constantly evolving ecosystem, provides the tooling indispensable to bring the power of machine intelligence to multiple platforms and devices, with reduced costs of server infrastructure, without the need for installation, and with the possibility to run models offline.
Therefore if you headhunt for an ideal candidate for your implementation, we recommend that you get a grasp of the few leading JS frameworks. Otherwise, you may end up hiring an excellent JS engineer who doesn't know a lick of the tools required to deliver your project efficiently.
While the knowledge of vanilla JS can greatly affect the speed and efficiency of development with frameworks, it is not mandatory.
We don’t recommend choosing a framework based solely on what skills your dev team has at hand or what your programmers feel comfortable with. It’s your concept or product that should drive the decision about tools, and not the other way round.
Therefore, seek to assemble a team of remote experts proficient in the framework that matches your exact expectations. And if you struggle, reach out to us. We will point you to the right person with the right skills ;)
To help you make up your mind and choose the best framework for your next project, we’ve come up with a little comparison. You’ll find out the crucial details about each framework and learn about its applications, functionalities, and top pros and cons.
If exploring frameworks doesn’t fire you with enthusiasm, you can skip directly to the summary table for a quick comparison table.
Best for: scalable Single Page Applications (SPA)
The differences between the earliest AngularJS and later Angular versions are monumental. Not only was the initial framework rewritten in TypeScript, but its entire architecture pattern changed from model-view-controller to component-based, where each element of UI can be treated as a separate component in a hierarchy.
The new Angular was primarily designed as a comprehensive framework to develop Single Page Applications (SPAs). SPAs are web pages that interact with a browser and don’t require any reload during use. Examples of SPAs include Twitter or Gmail. On top of these changes, Angular v2 was conceived with the mobile-first approach in mind, to enable efficient, platform-independent mobile app development.
Angular’s upgrade has caused a rift among web developers, as the vast scope of changes has made the original and consecutive versions completely non-compatible. Since Angular v2 and its followers appeared, the number of AngularJS developers has been gradually diminishing. Even so, some engineers still make use of the original framework, reluctant to transition to the upgraded versions, as they involve embracing an entirely new set of skills.
Today, Angular stands out from other frameworks thanks to its architecture, which allows building sophisticated and powerful UIs with rich interaction capabilities. Self-sufficient components can be reused across different sections of applications, and their decoupling makes the code easier to maintain. TypeScript is another defining feature of Angular, which helps maintain clear and error-free code, especially in enterprise-grade applications.
While AngularJS was troubled by lagging performance, its successors are packed with CPU performance-enhancing features for higher application performance. The latest versions also include various optimization techniques to optimize loading times.
Overall, Angular boasts an immense collection of GitHub repositories (more than 650K!) and over 2 MILLION commits. About one-third of the web developers program with the framework, which is quite a large pool. What’s interesting, however, is that only half of them enjoy working with Angular, with the other half dreading its complexity, steep learning curve, and bloated architecture.
Maturity: Version 2 published in 2014, the latest, ninth, update released in Feb 2020. Angular (all versions) is the second most popular web framework, with over 653K GitHub repositories. Nevertheless, it’s also among the least liked and most dreaded developer tools.
Used by: BMW (price calculator, dealer finder), Google (landing pages for Marketing Platform, Digital Garage, and other projects), Forbes (website), Microsoft (Office Home website), PayPal (UI elements), Crunchbase (website); more companies appear here.
Best for: simple SPAs with custom interfaces
The first version of Backbone.js was published in 2010 to give developers “the freedom to design the full experience of their web application.” This framework (sometimes classified as a library) stands out with simplicity and a gentle learning curve. The free and open source tool has a RESTful JSON interface and is based on the model–view–presenter (MVP) application paradigm.
One of the defining features of Backbone.js is that all server-side functionalities must be passed through the API. This helps developers trim down the code and simplify the delivery of complex web functions. Backbone works on the principle of providing the minimal set of models, collections, and user interfaces, leaving the choice of extensions to the developer’s discretion. It also has a clear, organized structure that facilitates the creation of elegant, readable code.
Although developers working with Backbone appreciate its simple usability modules and organized format, the tool is not immensely popular. Less than 8% of web developers know the framework, which has 24K repositories on GitHub.
Maturity: First published in 2010. Currently, it has over 24K GitHub repositories, with more than 576K commits; ca. 8% of web developers use it.
Used by: Trello app, Uber website, Basecamp calendar, Airbnb (mobile app), Verizon
Best for: enterprise-grade, dashboard-like applications
As an MVC framework, Ember divides the underlying logic into three self-contained but interconnected layers. By abstracting the data model from the controller and view elements, Ember.js enables parallel, asynchronous development where one team is working, e.g., on the interface look and feel. Another takes care of business logic. This results in rapid software development and simple code maintenance.
Additionally, Ember supports two-way data binding: any updates in the model are immediately reflected in the view, and vice versa. The framework also offers its own command-line interface to create, build, and test the code fast, as well as an inspector tool for debugging applications. An essential advantage of Ember is its standardized structure, which translates to more streamlined development and stable, performant applications.
The fact that only about 8% of web developers regularly use Ember places the framework on the niche side. Nevertheless, the tool has many prominent names among its users, which proves its value in the development of enterprise-grade web apps.
Maturity: Initial release in December 2011, with a first stable release in 2015.
Used by: Apple Music, Adidas Runtastic, Groupon, TED, Microsoft, Zendesk
Best for: high-performance, interactive websites, cross-platform mobile app development
According to the official website, ReactJS is a library. However, the resource is so powerful and fully-featured that it is often classified as a framework (even Stack Overflow does it). So let’s pop it in this category.
A long-time industry favorite React gives us plenty of reasons to be loved. This Facebook child emerged in 2013, taking off immediately as a powerful tool for the development of large, very dynamic applications. As a declarative framework, React ensures readable, scalable code that is easy to debug and maintain. Following the ‘learn once, write everywhere’ principle means that developers don’t need to rewrite almost any code to provide support for different devices or OSs.
The tool’s significant strength comes from the separation of data and presentation layers, virtual DOM, and modular, reusable components. These inherent features of React help save development time and simplify upgrades, as well as to update the view in web applications faster in case of any changes. Additionally, as React is not tied to a specific technology stack, it can be combined with other frameworks.
Every third developer knows React, and over 70% of JS developers have worked with the tool and are willing to use it in the future. React’s tremendous popularity is well-reflected in the mind-boggling number of GitHub repos — over 1.4 million!
Maturity: Since its release in 2013, React has become the most used and adored JS framework, loved by 75% of developers.
Used by: Slack, Twitter, Netflix (Gibbon platform), Facebook, Khan Academy, CodeAcademy, Dropbox, Yahoo, and many more
React is the second most popular web toolkit
Best for: updating or replacing legacy web apps, small and fast websites and applications
As a component JS framework, Svelte bears some resemblance to React and Vue. However, it runs at the pre-build time, using its own compiler to convert components into imperative code that updates the DOM. Doing so results in nimble, performant code that provides web apps with an incredible speed of loading.
In addition to that, Svelte is also reactive; whenever the application state changes, the user-facing view is updated accordingly. Without virtual DOM and boilerplate code (large chunks of code that reappear in different sections and bloat an app), its syntax is simplified and compact, positively affecting development speed and app or website performance.
The framework (or a compiler, as some prefer to see it) adheres closely to HTML, which makes it more understandable and user-oriented. On top of that, scope styling makes custom CSS syntax and extra extensions redundant.
Maturity: First released in 2016, it is one of the latest JS frameworks. Only 8K GitHub repositories, with 108K commits.
Used by: Bloomberg, Nesta, Spotify, SEMrush, New York Times
Best for: simple, lightweight applications and prototypes
The framework emphasizes performance and flexibility. As it uses an HTML-based template syntax and simple styling, it’s characterized by a faster learning curve than other JS frameworks. Browser dev tools extensions and code reusability simplify and accelerate development. Vue also supports many design patterns and, like React, utilizes virtual DOM, enabling quick updating of the view in web applications.
While only about 15% of developers currently work in Vue.js, it belongs to the top three most loved frameworks. 3 out of 4 software developers name it among their favorites.
Maturity: Released in 2014, exhibited an explosive growth over the six years. >22K GitHub repositories and >109K commits
Used by: Netflix (smaller, dedicated apps), Adobe (artist portfolio), Grammarly (text editor), Gitlab (webpage), Wizzair (flight search), Buzzfeed (subsites)
If you are looking for a more in-depth comparison of Vue.js vs. React, check out our blog post, where we inspect the two popular JS frameworks in close detail.
Best for: real-time, scalable network applications
Although the tool created in 2009 wasn’t the first one to introduce a JS server-side environment. Even so, it quickly gained traction, and now it occupies the top spot as the most popular web development technology.
Node.js takes advantage of the flexible, event-driven programming paradigm where the flow of code execution is driven by events, such as a user’s input. This allows for easy modifications and updates and simplifies programming in some respect.
Thanks to the event-based flow, programmers can also enjoy great independence and agility to implement features from scratch and exactly as specified. However, this may also become a hindrance for less experienced programmers. The lack of guidance and standardization may require more work on their part, slowing down productivity.
Enhanced application performance is another massive gain of server-side execution. Chrome’s V8 engine used to compile JS code works with top speed, which is additionally enhanced by the asynchronous API model that allows concurrent event handling. All the same, it’s worth noting that these efficiencies don’t apply to applications that require heavy computations.
With more than 263K GitHub repositories, Node.js boasts a healthy ecosystem and corporate support. Nearly 50% of web developers use the tool in their projects, with about three-quarters of them loving the experience.
Maturity: Written by Ryan Dahl in 2009, with 14 stable release versions so far. 263K GitHub repositories with over 1 million commits. One of the most commonly used web development technologies.
Used by: PayPal, Capital One, Groupon, IBM, Microsoft, Netflix, SAP, Walmart, GoDaddy
Best for: small and medium-size websites, quick mockup APIs
Express is a minimalist, yet powerful, backend framework for Node.js praised for its simplicity and flexibility. Released as free and open-source software under the MIT License in 2010, it is used to build web and mobile applications and web APIs. Despite its compact size, Express can be used to manage all backend aspects, from routes to handling UI components.
The lightweight framework focuses on simple and productive web development and trimming down the code size. In addition to being very fast, Express offers an abundance of extensibility options via plug-ins.
As a non-opinionated technology, Express doesn’t impose the code structure or the used components, and it can work with any frontend technology. That may explain why it is very popular with the programmers’ community. Over 71% of web developers have used it and would like to work with it again. Another 12% intend to add it to their skill set. Although startups and SMBs are the main business users, several global corporations also utilize the framework in their smaller projects.
Maturity: Released in 2010 by TJ Holowaychuk. The top JS framework on the backend, with over 47K GitHub repositories.
Used by: IBM, PayPal, Uber, Yandex, Accenture
Best for: efficient and scalable server-side applications
Finally, we move on to NestJS (not to confuse it with NextJS), another developers’ darling. The youngest of the presented frameworks was created in 2017 by Kamil Myśliwiec to facilitate creating scalable server-side apps.
The tool comes with an out-of-the-box application architecture that aims to enhance developer productivity and experience. For instance, it offers an embedded command-line interface tool that helps automate tasks, speed up development, and, as a result, get to market faster with a web-based project.
The lack of maturity and small community are probably the most significant drawbacks of the framework. Nevertheless, NestJS is regularly updated; its detailed, well-maintained documentation makes it very easy to master. All of these aspects, combined with burgeoning downloads, set it up for future success.
Maturity: Released in 2017, which places it among the youngest JS backend frameworks. 8K GitHub repositories and 35K commits.
Used by: REWE digital, Wizkids, Societe Generale, Komed Health, Harmonize Health
All leading browsers currently provide their in-built debuggers to verify the output data and investigate faulty code quickly. Examples include Chrome Developer Tools, Firefox Developer Tools, and Safari Develop Menu. Standalone utilities like debugger, JS Bin, or Postman also exist. They are particularly useful for collaborative debugging in team projects. Node.js has its own debugging tool, Node.js Inspector, suitable for backend projects.
Code editors are essential for software development, as they supply the environment where the code is written, modified, and upgraded. As opposed to comprehensive IDEs, text editing tools typically don’t include interpreters and compilers, and don’t provide debugging and version control capabilities. Instead, they are fast and uncluttered and have all it takes to get the programming job done swiftly.
In HTML5, the ‘Canvas’ element is used to create graphics in real-time via scripting. It can be used, for instance, to draw interactive diagrams and graphs, add custom animations, and collate photos.
Programmers simplify these tasks by leveraging readily-accessible canvas libraries, such as GoJS, FabricJS, bHive.js, and HTML Canvas Library. They provide interactive object models and rich features to enable dynamic manipulation of vector images, text, gradient, shapes, and animations, streamlining the delivery of sophisticated, fulfilling user experiences in web-based solutions.
Build automation programs facilitate the creation of executable apps by automating and streamlining the processes of compiling, testing, packaging, and deploying the source code. They also help generate project documentation and release notes faster.
Another set of tools that help minimize development time to build highly responsive, cross-browser web applications include JS widgets — minimalist, self-contained components that deliver a specific function. They are often grouped into libraries, such as jQWidgets, DevExtreme, Webix, and DHTMLX Suite.
There are multiple reasons for embedding JS widgets into websites and web apps. Some widgets optimize page download times, boosting site performance, and enhancing navigation. Others automatically adjust website or web app behavior in line with the target device and browser, thus driving optimal user experience. Complex widgets enable easy implementation of advanced features such as spreadsheets, filters, advanced visualization, or data manipulation. Visually appealing widgets help ensure a top-grade, consistent website look & feel.
JS testing tools make developers’ lives easier by reducing the complexity of manual testing. They help programmers identify gaps and errors in the source code and ensure their software behaves in a consistent, secure, and predictable manner in varying conditions and on different platforms.
Even though PHP is past its prime, developers still rely on it for the backend development of their web apps. The language is suitable for other applications. Nevertheless, web development takes precedence. Quite often, PHP and JS work in tandem, where the former on the server supports the latter on the client side.
A general-purpose scripting language, Ruby owes popularity mainly to the Ruby on Rails framework for building websites and web apps. Even so, it is also extensively used for the creation of sophisticated programming toolings, such as platforms for mobile app development and package management applications. Thus, Ruby beats JS in terms of versatility.
The main benefit of the language is that it’s geared towards ‘programmer happiness,’ focusing on simplicity, productivity, and time efficiency. This is possible thanks to the abundance of tools that facilitate and accelerate the coding experience. Ruby, as such, doesn’t score very high when it comes to app performance. However, it gains a massive boost with a lightweight interpreter, mruby, frequently leveraged in high-performance applications.
Developed by Google, Dart is an object-oriented, class-based programming language for delivering apps on multiple platforms. Even though it’s still considered niche (only 4% of developers use it), Dart was the fastest-growing language on GitHub between 2018 and 2019. The surge in Dart’s popularity is attributed to the emergence of Flutter, Google’s UI toolkit for cross-platform app development. Besides the Flutter framework, the usage of Dart remains insignificant.
Despite these benefits, the language mostly appears in projects that require strong performance and ultra-low latency. That is because of the steep learning curve and complexity, which prompt many beginners to give up on their efforts to master the language. Finding a reliable and experienced C++ developer takes much more time than hiring a skilled JS expert (or a Python engineer, for scientific computing projects). Mainly for that reason, companies go with C++ only if there’s no alternative.
The availability of Blazor, a client-side UI framework, and WebAssembly standard makes C# one of the very few technologies apart from JS for the creation of web frontends. It’s estimated that over 30% of developers know C#. However, they mostly come from an enterprise background. Using agile development practices with C# is doable, though uncommon.
While Rust and Golang emerged from completely different backgrounds, they share an array of similarities. Rust is a multi-paradigm programming language originally developed by Mozilla as an advanced extension of machine learning languages. Currently, it is predominantly used to build in-house and OS software and infrastructure/DevOps tools. It also retains broad application in gaming development, as well as AI, ML, and VR projects. Rust may be used in the frontend, as well as the backend of web apps.
Golang came into being in 2007, created by Google, to streamline building software infrastructure. Today, developers use Golang for building large corporate systems and robust, scalable network servers. The application of Go in web development is also increasing.
Java was designed as a multi-platform technology, ready to support not only desktop software but also mobile apps (remember Java Applets?). Currently, the language’s scope has diminished, and developers use it mainly for web backend and Windows apps.
Appointed the technology of choice for Android development, Kotlin is a modern statically typed programming language created by Google as a remedy for Java’s shortages. Therefore, it takes what’s best after Java, while reducing the size of the boilerplate code.
The expansive growth of ML in recent years has prompted the vibrant JS community to experiment with various applications of the programming language to develop machine learning use cases. The result is an explosion of machine learning libraries, especially focusing on enabling services around content recommendation, activity monitoring, image recognition and manipulation, object detection, and language translation. Here are some examples:
Like Brain.js, Synaptic is also used to implement neural network scenarios by training simple and more sophisticated NN architectures. Trained networks can paint images, classify objects, and “read” text, for example.
A hardware-accelerated and open source JS-based library, Deeplearn allows JS programmers to train deep learning models in the browser, as well as to run pre-trained models. Google introduced the library first; now, it is used across various industries.
The most popular of all, TensorFlow serves to run and retrain existing ML models in the browser and build new ones from scratch, using JS. Elaborate models can do anything from recognizing images and voices to delivering AR and VR-based interactive mobile gaming experiences.
As a business stakeholder, you can relate to this fundamental question:
The total of your JS project (or any other software development project) depends on numerous variables. To get an accurate estimate, you need to take into account your specific project requirements.
Still, certain frameworks may come in two flavors, as open source for individual and non-commercial users, and with a paid commercial license. This is the case for Ext JS, for example. Sencha's framework offers several pricing tiers, including a free community license. Paid options cost between $1,295 and $1,895 per developer. Unlimited licenses are priced individually.
United States: $79-$117K/year
United Kingdom: $65K/year
There are also slight differences between various JS frameworks.
An average AngularJS Developer in the US makes $110K/year, with entry-level positions starting at $85K/year, and senior-level developers making up to $175K/year.
For React Js, entry-level positions start at $68K/year. Experienced workers can make up to $171K/year.
Vue.js skills are worth from $45K/year up to $76K/year.
Node.js developer earnings range from $48K/year to $130K/year.
That's earnings. But what about Client rates when you are hiring developers for the project?
United States: up to $150/hour
Canada: $120 - $130/hour
Australia: $90 - $120/hour
United Kingdom: $100 - $120/hour
Western Europe: $80 - $110/hour
Central and Eastern Europe: $45 - $70/hour
Unless you skipped all the previous sections, you should already know that nearly all websites in the world use JS. Therefore, coming up with a few mind-blowing examples of JS usage isn’t that much of a challenge.
Industry: media, online publishing
Where it uses JS: app servers
Result: frequent, iterative code deployments
Industry: e-commerce, online marketplace
Where it uses JS: backend and frontend
Result: the ability to handle heavy traffic volumes at speed
Industry: media, online streaming
Where it uses JS: backend and frontend
Result: cross-platform support and robustness to render and consume large data sets
IBM MobileFirst Platform Foundation (a suite for mobile app development)
Industry: ITC, software development
Where it uses JS: frontend of the app
Result: the capability to recreate the corporate UI look and sophisticated features on mobile
Where it uses JS: mobile app
Result: quick loading time, component structure, in-built security support
Visualforce framework (to build custom UIs)
Industry: SaaS, marketing
Where it uses JS: web app frontend, Visualforce pages
Result: modular web app design, faster rendering of complex views
Industry: online technology
Where it uses JS: browser engine
Result: configurable, module-based design, quick development, appealing visuals
Industry: healthcare, insurance
Where it uses JS: mobile app
Result: 80% code reuse, small but nimble development team
Where it uses JS: car configurator website
Result: site interactivity and quick UI updates according to user inputs
Where it uses JS: website
Result: rich UI, captivating animations
Where it uses JS: browser game
Result: powerful graphics, interactive, 3D gaming experience
Industry: location data, new tech
Result: powering dynamic features like maps and lists
Before the project kick-off, you should ensure everyone involved in the project is on the same page. It matters especially now, in the age of remote working and globally-operating teams who never get to meet one another in person.
Regardless of whether you’re working with your internal team or use an external company/freelance support, it’s a good idea to organize an informal meet-and-greet call. It will provide your team members with a chance to network with their colleagues.
As the next step, set up a planning call to get down to the nitty-gritty of the project. Together, agree on details such as:
At this stage, if you work in Agile, your team comes up with a backlog of tasks, based on the list of technology and business requirements. If your project follows a more traditional Waterfall structure, then your people need to document all requirements and scope of work.
Once everyone knows what to do and understands the expected outcome, architects kick off the design phase, which usually involves rapid prototyping.
First of all, take note of your developers’ communication skills. In the dynamic, highly-innovative software development setting, collaborative spirit and clarity, so conveying complex ideas in simple terms, are crucial for any project’s success. From code comments, through scrum meetings, to slack conversations, well-rounded programmers need to demonstrate the ability to speak and listen well at all levels. Note that in larger teams, information flow breaks more easily, that’s why most agile teams tend to be rather small, up to 10-15 people.
Another essential aspect at this stage is code review. This good programming practice refers to the process where a developer’s code is getting regularly evaluated by peers. Such a procedure helps ensure the high quality of code and eliminate potential bugs and errors. It is also beneficial for maintaining design consistency.
What is more, JS allows testing code directly in the browser. All major browsers come with a JS console where you can quickly type in the code to execute it and verify the results. However, comprehensive unit testing requires the use of a framework.
The role of JS testing frameworks is to simplify and streamline tests, lower maintenance costs, and maximize testing speed and quality. This is achieved by automating manual interventions and optimizing code reusability.
Testing frameworks support QA engineers and boost their productivity by:
The most popular JS testing frameworks include:
Software development projects often start small. Let’s say that you need to build a basic company website or a single business utility app. You gather a team, specify the requirements, fix on the design, and develop it within a few weeks.
However, as your demands grow, so does your code. You extend it to add new interactive pages showcasing company services, add a few extra lines of code to upgrade the app layout, and create several new components to enhance the functionalities of your mobile application. One day, your code suddenly ends up being thousands of lines long. Bloated out of proportion, it becomes hard to read and understand, doesn’t comply with any naming conventions, and is impossible to work with.
Refactoring is an involved process that comprises numerous elements, such as:
If we analyze the global JS popularity chart in the last few years, we can see that the trend remains constant, without any major fluctuations. The language community has been steadily growing over that period; for example, two years ago, there were nearly 10 million JS developers; now, their count is nearing 12 million.
It also seems that the business profile of the companies using JS in their products keeps steady. According to the 2018 State of JS survey, companies of 100-1000 employees were the dominant JS users, followed by large enterprises, and small organizations of 20-50 people. Last year, the same proportions held, with a slight increase in the use of JS among medium-sized and large businesses.